Management and Society


Management existed as early as mankind. It has a biblical foundation and reference. It has been practiced for thousands of years and organized projects were directed by people responsible for planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Management theories and practices evolved in the past showing the evolving nature and character of management. Early management scholars and contributors recognized the existence of the three approaches of management which are classical approach, behavioural approach and integrative approach. This research article presents the evolving nature of management thoughts and practices from the early approaches of management to modern approaches to management. This in effect would give the much clearer understanding of hundreds of definition of management ranging from simple to complex. And that management is not only the process of getting things done effectively and efficiently, with and through people but it also has become a social institution. Hence, it cannot escape social issues.



Abdelkarim Kitana. Overview of the managerial thoughts and theories from the history: Classical management theory to modern management theory. Indian Journal ofManagement Science, (6):16–21, 2016.

JackDuncan. EssentialsofManagement(TheDrydenPressSeries in Management). London: Routledge, 2009.

Angus C. F. Kwok. The evolution of management theories: A literature review. Nang Yan Business Journal, 3(1):28 – 40, 2014.

Alireza Nadrifar, Esmat Bandani, and Hakimeh Shahryari. Overview of classical management theories: A review article. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5(9):83 – 86, 2016.

Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich. Essentialsof Management: An International Perspective. McGraw-Hill, 8th Edition, 2010.

Richard Daft. Management. South-Western College Pub; 12th Edition, 2015.

Luis R. Gomez-Mejia, David B. Balkin, and Robert L. Cardy. Management: People, Performance, Change. McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Andrew J. DuBrin. Essentials of Management. South-Western Learning, 2012.

Dan R. Reid and Nader R. Sanders. Operations Management, An Integrated Approach. Wiley Sons Singapore Pte Ltd., 3rd Edition, 2013.

Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A.Judge. Organizational Behavior, (18th Edition) (What’s New in Management). Pearson Education Limited, 2019.

L. Hamilton and P Webster. TheInternationalBusinessEnvironment. Oxford University Press, 2012.

AnrewGhillyer.Management,ARealWorldApproach.McGrawHill, 2009.

PaulEmmerson. EssentialBusinessVocabularyBuilder. Macmillan Publishers Limited Companies, 2015.

Peter Drucker. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. London: Routledge, 2011.

Chuck Robert. The importance of modern management theoriesinmanagingpeople., 2019.