Cover Image

Neuroendocrine tumor: How to diagnose?

Hung Van Tran

Abstract

Neurendocrine tumors (NETs) is a rare tumor with incidence about 2 cases per 100,000 persons but they represent a clinical challenge because of their varied presentations and initial studying images to locate the tumors may be inconclusive. Based on the characteristic of peptide and amine producing of those tumor cells, the intracellular markers of endocrine tissue, such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase can be used in the diagnosis. NETs can be classified as carcinoid tumors or functional and non-functional NETs. While functional NETs and carcinoid tumors can be revealed by their dramatic clinical symptoms due to it over production of endogenous hormones or vasoactive substances, nonfunctional NETs are silent and therefore may be metastasized at the time of detection. This review will summarize the heritable tumor syndromes that related to NETs, the main clinical symptoms as well as the methods to diagnose NETs.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Adam M. Mougey. (2007). Neuroendocrine tumors: Review and clinical update. Hospital Physician.

Gouya H at el. (2003). CT, endoscopic sonography, and a combined protocol for preoperative evaluation of pancreatic insulinomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol.

Thoeni RF et al. (2000).Detection of small, functional islet cell tumors in the pancreas: selection of MR imaging sequences for optimal sensitivity. Radiology.

Schillaci O et al. (2003). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in liver metastasis detection from gastroentoropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. J Nucl Med.

Quigley AM et al. (2005). Intertumoural variability in functional imaging within patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumors. An observational, crosssectional study. Neuroendocrinology.

Goebel SU et al. (1999).Prospective study of the value of serum chromogranin A or serum gastrin levels in the assessment of the presence, extent, or growth of gastrinomas. Cancer.

Nikou GC et al. (2005). Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients. Hepatogastroenterology.

Lo CY et al. (1997). Pancreatic insulinomas. A 15-year experience. Arch Surg,

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.