Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphate toxicity in impairment of pancreatic cells


Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is necessary for cellular structure and energy metabolism. However, excessive Pi causes harmful effects, including vascular calcification, cell death, defective insulin secretion and impaired insulin synthesis. Pi uptaken into mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to reticulum endoplasmic stress (ER stress) and mitochondrial dysfunction via opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPT) pore. These two main sequences of Pi overload have important roles for mentioned detrimental effects in hyperphosphatemia.This review provides an insight into the relationship of Pi overload, mPT pore and ER stress in pathologic conditions. © 2016 Tan Tao University